A keto diet is a low-carb, high-fat, moderate-protein diet. Initially, it was used for the treatment of epilepsy of children, and now it is increasingly prescribed to diabetics. Such a diet makes the body use fats as the main source of energy instead of carbohydrates.
Prohibited Foods on the Keto Diet
The estimated ratio of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates on the Keto-diet: 25-70-5. The recommended amount of carbohydrates per day should be no more than 50 grams. It is also important to drink at least 1.5-2 liters of fluid per day.
The list of strictly forbidden foods during the Ketogenic diet:
• Sweets (cakes, chocolate, marshmallows, waffles);
• Bakery products (bread);
• Cereals (rice, buckwheat, oatmeal, millet, barley);
• Sweet fruits (bananas, grapes, mangoes, persimmons);
• Vegetables high in carbohydrates (potatoes, sweet potato, corn, onions, garlic);
Approved Foods on the Keto Diet
Fortunately, the list of recommended products on Keto is much longer, and there are many tasty foods in it. There are:
• Meat as the main source of protein and vitamins. It can be poultry, beef, rabbit meat and pork;
• Fish – a source of protein and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Oily sea fish is preferable, it helps to balance the diet;
• Seafood – protein, and nutrients. You can eat oysters, mussels, shrimps, squids, crabs;
• Eggs – protein, vitamins, and minerals;
• Nuts – a healthy snack between the main meals (almonds, hazelnuts, walnuts, pistachios – not more than 30 g per day);
• Low-fat fermented milk products – a source of calcium, vitamins, and minerals (kefir, yogurt, cottage cheese, cheese and skim milk);
• Vegetables – low-calorie foods rich in fiber. The most useful: green salad, spinach, radish, cucumbers, zucchini, and cabbage;
• Fruits – you can eat unsweetened fruits – apples, berries, grapefruits, oranges (https://askyourfitnessquestion.com/ketogenic-diet-everything-you-need-to-know-about-8-best-recipes-on-keto/).
Hormones and the ketogenic diet
Ketogenic diets cause adaptation primarily due to the effect on the levels of two hormones: insulin and glucagon. Insulin is a “conservation hormone” responsible for the transfer of nutrients from the blood to the tissues of the body. So, insulin causes glucose to accumulate in the muscles in the form of glycogen, and FFAs (Free Fatty Acids) are stored in adipose tissue in the form of triglycerides. Glucagon is a fuel-mobilizing hormone that stimulates the use of glycogen stores, mainly stored in the liver, to provide glucose to the body.
When carbohydrates are removed from the diet, insulin levels drop, and glucagon levels rise. This leads to an increase in the release of FFA from adipose tissue and accelerated burning of FFA in the liver. The accelerated burning of FFA in the liver is what ultimately leads to the formation of ketone bodies and the formation of a metabolic state called KETOZ. In addition to insulin and glucagon, 11 other hormones are also involved, which ultimately helps switch the body to using fat instead of carbohydrates as a fuel source.
Exercise and a ketogenic diet
As with any other diet aimed at burning fat, exercise will improve the effectiveness of the ketogenic diet. However, a carbohydrate-free diet makes it impossible to perform high-intensity exercise, while low-intensity exercises can be performed. For this reason, athletes who wish to perform high-intensity exercises need to include carbohydrates without disrupting the effects of ketosis.
There are two modifications of the ketogenic diet, suitable for this issue from two directions:
• The Targeted KETO diet, which allows you to consume carbohydrates before and during exercise, to maintain performance without compromising ketosis.
• The Cyclical KETO diet, which practices alternating keto diet periods with high-carb periods. High-carb periods replenish muscle glycogen stores to maintain physical performance.
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