One of the most common mistakes made by beginners is to start intensive training without first preparing for heavy loads. Summer’s soon. Have you ever thought about going to the gym or fitness club? Remember that load during training should begin gradually. Many athletes try to build muscles or increase strength using large weights and inappropriate training principles immediately.
Meanwhile, the body needs a smooth adaptation to the loads. You need to be prepared for training, and, first of all, this applies to preliminary training of muscles, ligaments, and tendons. Weight routine has a stressful effect on the ligaments and tendons, which significantly increases the risk of injury. Before setting any goals, it is necessary to conduct from 3 to 6 weeks of adaptation training. Even experienced athletes need a period of adaptation after a long time break between training.
At some point it may seem that you are capable of more and that there is no need to limit yourself in the loads – take your time, it is better to work out with low intensity for another 1-2 weeks and hone your technique. The reason is that muscles adapt faster than ligaments and tendons do. But you can not start more intensive training without preparing all the necessary systems of the body.
Duration and Frequency
It is recommended for 3 to 6 weeks of adaptation for beginners. Although the goal of this period is not muscle growth, many people say that their muscles have become larger and their appearance has improved.
The frequency of training depends on the level of training and the amount of free time, but usually 2-3 times a week is enough.
Adaptation Training Methods
The best methodology for adaptation is circular training. Circular training is time-tested – they were first introduced in 1959 by scientists from the University of Leeds as a method of improving fitness training. The training got its name from the fact that in the original version the equipment for classes was formed in a circle in which it was necessary to move from one to another in a circle.
Circular training is about alternately performing one set of each exercise with short periods of rest between them. When all exercises are completed, a short respite follows and the circle repeats first.
A variety of exercises are suitable for circular training – from exercises with your bodyweight to the weight of training equipment. When choosing exercises, you need to consider training the main muscle group. Do not give the load on the same muscle 2 times in a row, alternate exercises on different muscle groups. This will allow you to recover faster and observe small intervals between sets.
The rest interval is 30-90 seconds between exercises and from 1 to 3 minutes before the start of a new “circle”.
Strength training and cardio workout in a circular training
To prepare not only for strength training but also to create a base for cardio training, you can use the following combination:
• 10-15 minutes of cardio;
• 3-4 strength exercises;
• 10 minutes of cardio;
• 3-4 strength exercises;
• 10 minutes of cardio.
Such a program lasts 45 minutes – 1 hour. If you want to extend the workout, you can repeat the circle or add 3-4 additional exercises, and you need to finish with another period of cardio loading.
For one to two weeks, it is normal to experience some muscle pain and fatigue after exercise. This is especially true for those who did not have sports training. After some time, these phenomena will not bother.
Adaptation does not mean that the load will not change throughout the entire period.
1.2 weeks – work with 40% of the weight
3.4 weeks – work with 50% of the weight
5.6 weeks – work with 60% of the weight
For experienced athletes returning to training, the scheme of the adaptation period can be a little bit complicated.
One-shot maximum can be measured at the beginning of the first and the end of the fourth week of training. Thus, training after the fourth week will be based on fresh data, and not on what happened a month ago.
Do not forget about the special rules of warming up
Studies show that only 5% of people do warming up properly before training, and this is a very sad statistic. Many believe that this is an extra waste of time, which is already limited in fitness classes. Let us once again recall what it might be dangerous to lack a warm-up before a workout in addition to reducing the effectiveness of training.
• The most common problem that occurs when there is no warm-up before training is a sprain;
• An even more unpleasant problem is a joint injury. If you deal with a cold joint, then there is a high risk of damage to it. The danger of a joint injury lies not only in the duration of recovery but also in the fact that after an injury it will remind itself constantly. Due to improper loads, the joints of the knees, ankle, shoulder and hips joints are especially often affected;
• Without a high-quality warm-up, dizziness or even fainting may occur due to a high load on the heart;
• A sudden sharp load without a preparatory warm-up part can cause a sharp jump in pressure, which is equally dangerous for people with hypertension and hypotension.
It is advisable to give a warm-up before training at least 7-10 minutes. It is better to start warming up with light cardio exercises to warm the body. Then, dynamic exercises should be performed to warm up the joints and to stretch the muscles. The warm-up ends again with cardio exercises with already greater intensity. At the end of the warm-up, we restore breathing by taking a deep breath and exhale.
The structure of the warm-up before training for 7-10 minutes:
• Easy cardio warm-up: 1-2 minutes;
• Joint gymnastics: 1-2 minutes;
• Dynamic muscle stretching: 2-3 minutes;
• Cardio warm-up: 2-3 minutes;
• Breathing recovery: 0.5-1 minute.
Cardio warming will increase body temperature, increase blood circulation, and prepare your muscles for further stretching. Joint gymnastics activates the joints, tendons, and ligaments to improve their mobility and help to work out the periarticular muscles. Dynamic stretching will make your muscles more elastic, which will help them work more efficiently throughout the workout.
Practicing warm-up, you will make the heart work faster, accelerate blood circulation, and activate all the muscles of the body. If you plan to stretch as a workout, then the final cardio warm-up can be increased up to 5-7 minutes.
Do not confuse warm-ups before training and stretching after training. In the warm-up, your goal is to warm up the muscles and joints, increase blood circulation, and prepare the body for exertion. The warm-up should not be slow and static, you should do it properly. After training, on the contrary, you should restore breathing, lower the pulse and perform static stretching exercises.